P.-J. Wang1, H.-F. Liao2,3, G.A. Morgan4, L.-C. Chen5, L.-J. Kang6,7, A.-W. Hwang6,7, L. Lu8
1Asia University, Department of Physical Therapy, Taichung, Taiwan, 2National Taiwan University, School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Taiwan Society of ICF, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Colorado State University, Education and Human Development, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States, 5Fooyin University, Department of Physical Therapy, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 6College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, 7Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, 8National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei, Taiwan

Background: Mastery motivation is an under-assessed resiliency factor that helps all children achieve their potential, and should be included as part of a child’ s assessment for designing early intervention plan and evaluating outcomes with parents. Furthermore, mastery motivation significantly predicted executive function better than standardized developmental quotients in young children with delays. Pediatric therapists view motivation as a determinant of change in basic motor abilities for children with motor disabilities. Therefore, mastery motivation is an essential element of development for children with delays. It was unclear whether child and family factors predicted mastery motivation in young children with delays during the early years, and most of studies are cross-sectional design.

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to longitudinally investigate whether early child and family factors predict later mastery motivation in children with global developmental delay (GDD).

Methods: Fifty-six children with GDD (aged 24-43 months) and their mothers participated in a 6-month longitudinal study [Time 1 (T1): study entry; Time 2 (T2): 6-month follow up). We assessed child factors [age, gender, behavior problems, developmental quotients (DQs), participation intensity in daily activities], family factors (socioeconomic status, numbers of children in a family, and maternal factors (education levels, stress, teaching behaviors) using the standardized measures and questionnaires at T1. The main outcome measures were the revised individualized moderately challenging tasks (task persistence) and the Dimension of Mastery Questionnaire rated by their mothers (perceived persistence; perceived anger/frustration) at T2. Children were tested using the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (cognitive, fine motor and social DQs) and the Assessment of Preschool Children’s Participation (participation intensity). Correlation was used to examine possible predictors, and hierarchical multiple regression was used to determine best predictors of children’s mastery motivation 6 months later (p<.05, two-tailed).

Results: Child fine motor DQ (β =.35, p< .05) and their participation intensity (β=.26, p<.05) were significant predictors of task persistence after 6 months later. The best predictors of total perceived persistence were high children’s social DQ (β =.29, p< .05), participation intensity in daily activities (β =.40, p< .05), and low maternal education level (β = -.35, p< .05). Children who had less number of siblings (β = -.26, p< .05) and high participation intensity in their daily activities (β =.28, p< .05) expressed more perceived anger or frustration when failing to complete challenging tasks. Maternal factors did not predict child mastery motivation.

Conclusion(s): Children’s participation in daily activities seems to be as important as child developmental abilities for enhancing later mastery motivation in young children with GDD. Different child and family factors predicted task and perceived mastery motivation respectively.

Implications: Early interventionist should focus on family-centered approaches and enhance children’s participation in daily activities to support their mastery motivation development in addition to child developmental abilities.

Funding, acknowledgements: The study was supported by a research grant from the the Ministry of Science and Technology. 

Keywords: motivation, participation, developmental delay

Topic: Paediatrics

Did this work require ethics approval? Yes
Institution: National Taiwan University Hospital
Committee: Research Ethics Committee
Ethics number: 201409045R

All authors, affiliations and abstracts have been published as submitted.

Back to the listing