Glossary

The glossary has been developed to support our work on policies, guidelines and other resources, to ensure consistency in terminology and to aid international interpretation, and as a resource for member organisations, regions and subgroups. World Physiotherapy encourages the use of the international terms where applicable but also recognises that not all terms are relevant at a national level.

A

Academic standard

A description of the level of achievement that a student has to reach to gain an academic award (for example, a degree). It should be at a similar level across higher education institutions (HEIs) within a single country.

Access by referral

The patient/client has access to the physical therapist by referral from another health professional (medical practitioner or other).

See also Access to physical therapy

Access to physical therapy

The ability of a patient/client or service user to be referred to a physical therapist for assessment and treatment. There are different types of access:

  1. Access by referral: The patient/client has access to the physical therapist by referral from another health professional (medical practitioner or other).
  2. Direct access: The patient/client directly asks the physical therapist to provide services (they refer themselves). The physical therapist freely decides their conduct and takes full responsibility for it. Also, the physical therapist has direct access to patients/clients and determines those that need a physical therapyassessment/intervention without referral from a third party.
  3. Self-referralpatients/clients are able to refer themselves to a therapist without having to see anyone else first, or without being told to refer themselves by a health professional. This can relate to telephone, IT or face-to-face services.
References

Department of Health. Self-referral pilots to musculoskeletal physiotherapy and the implications for improving access to other AHP services. London, UK: Department of Health; 2008. Download PDF. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Accreditation

A type of quality assurance process that utilises all aspects of review and assessment according to pre-defined standards. Accreditation may be applied to physical therapy education programmes or a programme of physical therapy service delivery. Academic credits may be awarded to the programme through this process.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Regulation of the physical therapy profession. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 19 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical TherapyWCPT guideline for a standard evaluation process for accreditation/recognition of physical therapist professional entry level education programmes. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Act

In relation to regulation, is a piece of government legislation/regulation or statute that legalises the practice of physical therapy.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Activities of daily living (ADL)

The daily self-care activities required to function in the home and/or outdoor environment. They may be classified as basic or instrumental.

  1. Basic ADL (BADL) covers domains such as dressing, eating, mobility, toileting and hygiene.
  2. Instrumental ADL (IADL) whilst not fundamental to functioning allows an individual to live independently e.g. shopping, housekeeping, managing finances, preparing meals and using transport.
References

Katz, S. Assessing self-maintenance: Activities of daily living, mobility and instrumental activities of daily living. JAGS 1983;31(12):721-726 National Cancer Institute US National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute US National Institutes of Health. 2010. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Activity limitation

The difficulty an individual may have in executing an activity.

References

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Advanced practice

Advanced practice in physiotherapy includes:

  • a higher level of practice, functions, responsibilities, activities and capabilities
  • may be, but is not necessarily, associated with a particular occupational title e.g. ‘consultant physiotherapist’, ‘advanced physiotherapy practitioner’, ‘advanced practice physiotherapist’ ‘extended scope practitioner’
  • requires a combination of advanced and distinctly increased clinical and analytical skills, knowledge, clinical reasoning, attitudes and experience
  • results in the responsibility for the delivery of care to patients/clients more commonly with complex needs or problems safely and competently and to manage risk.
References

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Advanced practice in physiotherapy. Understanding the contribution of advanced practice in physiotherapy to transforming lives, maximising independence and empowering populations. (Download PDF) London, UK: CSP; 2016. (Access date 1 October 2018)

Australian Physiotherapy Association.APA Position Statement Scope of practice (PDF). Hawthorn, Australia: APA; 2016. (Access date 2 July 2018)

Assessment

In healthcare, is a process used to learn about a patient’s condition. This may include a complete medical history, medical tests, a physical exam, a test of learning skills, tests to find out if the patient is able to carry out the tasks of daily living, a mental health evaluation, and a review of social support and community resources available to the patient. Environments may also be the subject of assessment using specific tests and measures and evaluation of the results (e.g. occupational health settings).

References

National Cancer Institute US National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute US National Institutes of Health. 2010. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Assistive products and technology

Any product, instrument, equipment or technical system adapted or specially designed for improving the functioning of a disabled person’. May include products and technology for mobility (e.g. crutches, canes, static and dynamic splints and wheelchairs), for communication (e.g. large-print books), for self-care (e.g. long handled reachers, bathing aids), for employment and education (e.g. computer software systems), for culture, recreation and sport (e.g. specialised wheelchairs). Assistive devices are classified in the ISO9999.

References

International Standards Organization. Assistive products for persons with disability—Classification and terminology. Edition 6. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO; 2016. (Access date 19 September 2019)

The United States Government. The Assistive Technology Act (29 U.S.C 3001 et seq.). Washington DC, USA: US Government; 2004. (Access date 19 September 2019)

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 19 September 2019)

World Health Organization. World Report on Disability. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Associate faculty

The people whose employing faculty is not the physical therapy faculty and who teach their subject in physical therapy professional programmes. Examples of associate faculty are physicians and nutritionists.

See also: Faculty

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for qualifications of faculty for physical therapist professional entry level education programmes. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Asylum seeker

A person who has left their country of origin, has applied for recognition as a refugee in another country, and is awaiting a decision on their application.

References

United Nations High Commission for Refugees. The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees Article 1 (PDF). New York, USA: UNHCR; 1951. (Access date 19 September 2019)

Autonomy

The ability of a reflective practitioner to make independent judgments; open to initiate, terminate, or alter physical therapy intervention. It means the responsibility of the professional to manage his/her practice independently and to act according to the rules of ethics and the code of professional conduct within a framework of health legislation. Professional autonomy is usually stated in the law, regulation, directives or rules governing the scope of practice.

  1. Clinical autonomy: Responsibility of the practitioner to decide the programme of intervention and its modalities based on the diagnosis that he/she makes.
  2. Management autonomy: Responsibility of the professional to manage his/her practice independently.
  3. Professional autonomy: is usually stated in the law, regulation, directives or rules. It means the responsibility of the professional to make decisions regarding the management of a patient/client based on one’s own professional knowledge and expertise to manage his/her practice independently and to act according to the rules of ethics and the code of professional conduct within the framework of health legislation.
References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 19 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Autonomy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 19 September 2019)

B

Bachelor's degree

Degrees at this level are typically theoretically-based but may include practical components and are informed by state of the art research and/or best professional practice. They are traditionally offered by universities and equivalent tertiary educational institutions. First degree programmes at this level typically have a duration of three to four years of full-time study at the tertiary level. For systems in which degrees are awarded by credit accumulation, a comparable amount of time and intensity would be required.

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Benchmark

The comparison of data/performance with best practice. It can be undertaken between educational programmes to inform regular evaluation, or against external criteria as part of an accreditation/evaluation process.

C

Capability

The ability to do something, such as practise a profession. It involves a number of competencies which collectively form capability.

Capacity

An individual’s ability to execute a task or an action. It may be associated with both mental and physical capacity.

References

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Client

A person, group or organisation eligible to receive services either directly or indirectly from a physiotherapist.

The client is:

  • an individual who is not necessarily sick or injured but who can benefit from a physiotherapist’s consultation, professional advice, or services; or
  • a business, school system, and others to whom physiotherapists offer services.

See also: Patient
See also: Service user

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Metadata Online Registry (METeOR) (Access date 25 September 2019)

Clinical audit

Involves reviewing the delivery of physiotherapy services to ensure that best practice is being carried out against explicit standards, changes are implemented, where necessary, and monitoring to sustain improvement is carried out.

References

Burgess R (Ed). NEW Principles of Best Practice in Clinical Audit, 2nd edition. Oxford, UK: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd; 2011.

Clinical autonomy

The responsibility of the practitioner to decide the programme of intervention and its modalities based on the diagnosis that they make.

See also: Autonomy

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Clinical education

The delivery, assessment and evaluation of learning experiences in clinical settings. Clinical education sites may include institutional, industrial, occupational, acute settings, primary health care, and community settings providing all aspects of the patient/client management model (examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis/plan of care, and interventions including prevention, health promotion, and wellness programmes).

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the clinical education component of the physiotherapist professional entry-level programme. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 22 September 2011)

Clinical education director/coordinator

A physiotherapist and an academic faculty member who is responsible for the clinical education component of the physiotherapist professional entry level programme that is normally delivered by physiotherapists in the clinical environment.

See also: Faculty

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the clinical education component of the physical therapist professional entry level programme. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 22 September 2011)

Clinical governance

Clinical governance is the system through which NHS organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which clinical excellence will flourish (Department of Health).

Clinical governance encompasses quality assurance, quality improvement and risk and incident management.

References

Public Health England. Guidance Clinical Governance. London, UK. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Clinical practice educators

Physiotherapists practising in clinical placement sites who supervise and evaluate the clinical skills of the student physiotherapist while on placement and report to the higher education institution. (May also be known as clinical supervisor/clinical educator).

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the clinical education component of the physical therapist professional entry-level programme. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 22 September 2011)

Clinical practice guidelines

Statements that include recommendations intended to optimise patient care that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options.

References

IOM (Institute of Medicine). Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Clinical reasoning/clinical decision making

An inferential process used by physiotherapists, and other practitioners, to collect and evaluate data and to make judgements about the diagnosis and management of patient problems. It is context-dependent and involves the development of narratives to make sense of the multiple factors and interests related to the reasoning task, including:

  • the physiotherapist’s unique frames of reference, workplace context and practice models; and
  • the patient’s contexts.
References

Higgs J, Jones MA. Clinical decision making and multiple problem spaces. In: Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 3rd edition. Boston, USA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2008:4-19.

Clinical Record

Anything that contains information (in any media) that has been created or gathered as a result of any professional encounter, aspect of care, or treatment by a physiotherapist or a person working under the supervision of a physiotherapist. It may also include information created or gathered by other health care providers.

References

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Record keeping guidance. PD061 version 3. London, UK: CSP; 2016. (Access date 25 September 2019)

College of Physiotherapists of Ontario. Standards for practice for physiotherapists: Standards for professional practice - record keeping. Toronto, Canada: College of Physiotherapists of Ontario; 2017. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Clinical sciences

The areas of study including physical therapeutic sciences, medical sciences and other sciences applied to physiotherapy practice.

Codes of practice/conduct

The ethical rules and principles that form an obligatory part of professional practice. They may be established by the physiotherapy profession and may be incorporated into national rules and laws.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Ethical responsibilities of physical therapists and WCPT member organisations. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Collaborative learning

Collaborative learning refers to occasions when students from two or more professions in health and social care learn with, from and about each other during all or part of their professional training with the object of cultivating collaboration during the practise of their profession.

References

World Health Organization, Framework for interprofessional education and collaborative practice. 2009, WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Community based rehabilitation

A strategy within community development for the rehabilitation, equalisation of opportunities, and social integration of all people with disabilities. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of persons with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, and the appropriate health, education, vocational and social services.

References

International Labour Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization. CBR: a strategy for rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, poverty reduction and social inclusion of people with disabilities: joint position paper. Download PDF. Geneva, Switzerland: 2004. (Access date 25 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Community based rehabilitation. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Competence

The proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/or methodological abilities, in practice or study situations and in professional and personal development.

Further it is the ability of a physiotherapist to practise safely and effectively in a range of contexts and situations of varying levels of complexity. The level of an individual’s competence in any situation will be influenced by many factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the physiotherapist’s qualifications, clinical experience, professional development and their ability to integrate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and judgements

For ER-WCPT explanatory note see: Annex 1: Terms specific to the European Region of WCPT.

References

Physiotherapy Board of Australia and Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand, Physiotherapy Practice thresholds in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand (PDF). 2015, Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand: Wellington, New Zealand. (Access date 18 September 2019)

The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2008, EQF: Luxembourg. (Access date 2 October 2019)

Condition

In the context of professional regulation 'condition' is a restriction or limitation imposed on the practice of physiotherapy.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Constitution

Sets out the rules that govern the confederation including its membership organisational structure, and operating procedures. This includes the duties and responsibilities of the Executive Board, member organisations, regions, subgroups as well as the organisation of the General Meeting held every four years. This Constitution may only be amended or repealed by a resolution passed by at least 75% of all votes cast at a General Meeting.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT's policy structure. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Consultation

The rendering of professional or expert opinion or advice by a physiotherapist.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice 3.0. Alexandria VA, USA: APTA, 2014. (Access date 18 December 2019)

Continued competence

Continued competence is both the maintenance of acquired competence and the ongoing development of new competences over time essential to fulfil the requirements of roles.

Continuing education units (CEUs)

CEUs are used in continuing education programmes, particularly those required in a licensed or registered profession in order for the professional to maintain the currency of the licence or registration. Evidence of completion of continuing education requirements may be mandated by certification bodies, professional societies, or governmental licensing boards. CEUs may be provided to an employer as evidence of education or training pertinent to employment.

References

International Association of Continuing Education and Training Continuing Education Units.The IACET Standard: Continuing Education Units (CEUs). McLean, USA: IACET; 2018. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Continuing professional development (CPD)

CPD is the process through which individuals undertake learning, through a broad range of activities that maintains, develops, and enhances skills and knowledge in order to improve performance in practice. physiotherapists should record and track their CPD activities to strengthen their professional profile and ensure continuing competence.

Continuing professional education (CPE)

CPE is a voluntary, self-directed learning experience sought for personal development and social progress. Often the term is used synonymously with continuing professional development.

References

Tucker BA and Huerta CG, Continuing Professional Education. 1984, Education Resource Information Centre, US Department of Education: Washington DC, USA.

Core academic faculty

The people who are employed in the physiotherapy faculty to teach physiotherapy professional education programmes.

See also: Faculty

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Guideline for qualifications of faculty for physical therapist professional entry level programmes. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 22 September 2011)

Core skills

The basic essential skills required by a physiotherapist.

References

European Region of the World Confederation for Physical TherapyEuropean Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

Cultural competence

A set of congruent behaviours, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enable that system, agency, or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy. Washington, USA: APTA; 2019. (Access date 18 December 2019)

Cultural intelligence

The capability to work effectively across cultures.

See also: Cultural competence

Curriculum development

Describes all the ways in which a training or teaching organisation plans and guides learning. This learning can take place in groups or with individual learners. It can take place inside or outside a classroom. It can take place in an institutional setting like a school, college or training centre.

References

A Rogers, P Taylor. Participatory Curriculum Development in Agricultural Education. A training guide. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization; 1998.

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004 (Access date 25 September 2019)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Metadata Online Registry (METeOR) (Access date 25 September 2019)

D

Decent work

Decent work, defined up by ILO in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, sums up the aspirations of people in their working lives. It involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organise and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men.

References

International Labour Organization. Decent Work: International Labour Organization; 2019 (Access date 25 September 2019)

Degree

An educational qualification awarded upon successful completion of specific education programmes in tertiary education (traditionally by universities or equivalent institutions).

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis in physiotherapy is the result of a process of clinical reasoning which results in the identification of existing or potential impairments, limitations in activities and restrictions in participation and of factors influencing functioning positively or negatively.

The purpose of the diagnosis is to guide physiotherapists in determining the prognosis and most appropriate intervention strategies for patients/clients and in sharing information with them. If the diagnostic process reveals findings that are not within the scope of the physiotherapist’s knowledge, experience or expertise, the physiotherapist will refer the patient/client to another appropriate practitioner.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Description of physical therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Digital practice

A term used to describe health care services, support, and information provided remotely via digital communication and devices.

See also: eHealth

References

International Network of Physiotherapy Regulatory Authorities. Report of the WCPT/INPTRA digital physical therapy practice task force. Virginia, USA: INPTRA; 2019 (Access date 18 December 2019)

Diploma level education

Typically prepares students for entry to degree level studies for those who have not followed an upper secondary level curriculum that allows direct access to a degree programme. Entry to diploma programmes generally requires completion of upper secondary education. The programme content can be expected to be more specialised or detailed than those offered at the upper secondary level and this is irrespective of the institutional setting of the programme. The students are typically older than those in upper secondary programmes.

The type of subsequent education can be subdivided into:

  • those that prepare for entry into a degree programme; and
  • programmes that are primarily designed for direct labour market entry.

The cumulative duration of the programme is considered from the beginning of upper secondary education and is typically between two and four years. The orientation of the programme is pre-vocational or pre-technical education and vocational or technical education.

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Direct access

The patient/client directly asks the physiotherapist to provide services (the patient/client refers themselves) and the physiotherapist freely decides his/her conduct and takes full responsibility for it. Also, the physiotherapist has direct access to patients/clients and determines their need for the physiotherapist’s examination/assessment and intervention/treatment without referral from a third party.

See also: Access to physical therapy
See also: Self-referral

Disability

The umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. It denotes the negative aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual’s contextual factors (environmental and personal factors)’. Personal factors are the particular background of an individual’s life and living, and comprise features of the individual that are not part of a health condition or health states, such as: gender, race, age, fitness, lifestyle, habits, coping styles, social background, education, profession, past and current experience, overall behaviour pattern, character style, individual psychological assets and other characteristics, all or any of which may play a role in disability in any level. Environmental factors are external factors that make up the physical, social and attitudinal environment in which people live and conduct their lives. Disability can be described at three levels: body (impairment of body function or structure), person (activity limitations) and society (participation restrictions).

References

United Nations. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, USA: United Nations; 2006.  (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Health Organization. World Report on Disability. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disaster

A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

References

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Terminology. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR; 2017. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disaster preparedness

Includes pre-disaster activities that are undertaken within the context of disaster risk management and are based on sound risk analysis. This analysis includes the development/enhancement of overall preparedness strategies, policies, institutional structures, warning and forecasting capabilities, and plans that define measures geared to helping at-risk communities safeguard their lives and assets by being alert to hazards and taking appropriate action in the face of an imminent threat or an actual disaster.

References

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Terminology. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR; 2017. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disaster prevention

The outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. Prevention expresses the concept and intention to completely avoid potential adverse impacts through action taken in advance. Examples include dams or embankments that eliminate flood risks, land-use regulations that do not permit any settlement in high risk zones, and seismic engineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a critical building in any likely earthquake. Very often the complete avoidance of losses is not feasible and the task transforms to that of mitigation. Partly for this reason, the terms prevention and mitigation are sometimes used interchangeably in casual use.

References

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. . Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR; 2017. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disaster recovery

A focus on how best to restore the capacity of the government and communities to rebuild and recover from crisis and to prevent relapses into conflict. In so doing, recovery seeks not only to catalyse sustainable development activities but also to build upon earlier humanitarian programmes to ensure that their inputs become assets for development.

References

UN High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms, June 2006, Rev.1. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations; 2006. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disciplinary panel/tribunal

Is the committee established under the legislation/regulation or Practice Act to hear cases against a physiotherapist where the charge has reached a threshold of seriousness in regard to professional misconduct.

References

World Confederation for Physical TherapyWCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Disease

A pathological condition or abnormal entity with a characteristic group of signs and symptoms affecting the body and with known or unknown aetiology.

See also: Health condition

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 8:1;9-744

Diversity

Diversity means having people with different characteristics in a given setting. Characteristics include ability, age, culture, ethnicity, gender, indigeneity, race, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, and other factors such as, educational background, health status, occupation and personality traits. Recognising and valuing diversity must be accompanied by concerted efforts to ensure inclusion of diverse populations, and that individuals are and feel valued, respected and supported.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Diversity and Inclusion. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Doctoral degree

A degree designed primarily to lead to an advanced research qualification. Programmes are devoted to advanced study and original research and are typically offered only by research-oriented tertiary educational institutions such as universities. Doctoral programmes exist in both academic and professional fields.

  1. Academic (research) doctorate – is the degree that educates individuals to be researchers. It usually concludes with the submission and defence of a thesis, dissertation or equivalent written work of publishable quality, representing a significant contribution to knowledge in the respective field of study. Therefore, these programmes are typically based on research and not only on course work. Examples include PhD, DPhil, DSc, EdD.
  2. Professional doctorate – is the degree that provides studies in a professional field with strong theoretical underpinnings and has as its primary purpose knowledge for application in professional practice. Students are expected to make a contribution to both theory and practice in their field. For example DPT, DPhysio. The term may be used to describe an entry level qualification in physiotherapy (eg the DPT as applied in the USA), or a further degree or named doctorate (e.g. the DPT as applied in the UK).
References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Documentation

Documentation is the process of recording of all aspects of patient/client care/management including the results of the initial examination/assessment, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis/plan, intervention/treatment, response to intervention/ treatment, changes in patient/client status relative to the intervention/treatment, re-examination, and discharge/discontinuation of intervention and other patient/client management activities.

See also: Record

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for records management: record keeping, storage, retrieval and disposal. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Duty of care

A legal obligation to always act in the best interest of patients/clients/populations and to protect them from unnecessary risk of harm by not acting or failing to act in a way that results in harm. The legal expectation is that the physiotherapist will provide services consistent with their level of training, skill and competence.

References

Middleton R, White P. What does the term ‘duty of care’ mean in practice? Frontline 2012;18(21):31-2

Social Care Institute of Excellence. Common induction standard 5: Principles for implementing duty of care. (Access date 16 August 2019)

The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Information paper PD101: Duty of care. London, UK: CSP; 2013. (Access date 29 August 2019)

Dysfunction

The disturbance or abnormality of function. Dysfunction may be expressed at the level of the body (impairment), the person (activity limitation) or in the ability of a person to undertake their usual social roles (participation restriction). For example movement dysfunction may be expressed as a problem with muscle structure or function, the ability to lift or to perform at work or leisure.

E

Education threshold

Minimal acceptable level which must be reached before progression/entry to a profession or professional level.

eHealth

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for health.

See also: Digital practice
See also: Information Communication Technology (ICT)

References

World Health Organization. eHealth. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; (access date 18 December 2019)

Endorsements

Endorsements record the Confederation’s support for policy statements which have been developed by other organisations and are relevant to physical therapy internationally. They have a simple majority vote at a General Meeting of World Physiotherapy and are available to member organisations to adopt, fully or in part.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT's policy structure. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Entry level physical therapist professional education programmes

Programmes that equip individuals to practise as independent autonomous physiotherapists. World Physiotherapy recommends that education for entry level physiotherapists should be based on university or university-level studies of a minimum of four years, independently validated and accredited as being at a standard that affords graduates full statutory and professional recognition.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Education. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Equity

The principle of equity moves beyond that of equality (the same resources are distributed to everyone regardless of differences between them) to work towards parity of access to resources. Equity recognises differences between people, and that at times there may need to be extra efforts for some individuals or groups.

References

Goddard M. Quality in and equality of access to healthcare services in England (PDF). Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK; 2008. (Access date 7 August 2018)

World Health Organisation. Gender, equity and human rights, World Health Organisation. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Evacuee

A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation.

References

US Department of Defense. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (PDF). Washington DC, USA: US Department of Defense; 2016. (Access date 16 August 2019)

Evaluation

Evaluation may be considered as clinical, educational or service.

Evaluation (clinical)

A dynamic process in which the physical therapist makes clinical judgments based on data gathered during the examination. It is the process that necessitates re-examination for the purpose of evaluating outcomes to identify progression to goal achievement or need for modification and change of plan of care.

See also: Evaluation

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 81:1;9-744

European Region of World Physiotherapy. European Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

Evaluation (educational)

The review and assessment of the quality of provision in order to identify areas for improvement. Evaluation includes the following:

  • evaluation of a subject, which focuses on one specific subject, for example biological sciences, looking at this subject across all programmes;
  • evaluation of a programme, which focuses on all the activities within a programme of physical therapy leading to a formal degree. Judgements are made about the academic standards and the quality of learning opportunities for students;
  • evaluation of an institution, which examines the quality of all activities, organisation, finance, management, facilities including library and IT, learning, teaching and research;
  • evaluation of a theme, which examines quality and practice around a specific theme for example student services.

See also: Evaluation

References

European Region of WCPT. European Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

Evaluation (service)

Designed and conducted solely to define or judge current care. Designed to answer: “What standard does this service achieve?” Measures current service without reference to a standard. Involves an intervention in use only. The choice of treatment is that of the clinician and patient according to guidance, professional standards and/or patient preference. Usually involves analysis of existing data but may include administration of interview or questionnaire.

See also: Evaluation

References

National Research Ethics Service. Defining Research. NRES guidance to help you decide if your project requires review by a Research Ethics Committee (PDF). London, UK: National Patient Safety Agency; 2013. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Evidence-based practice (EBP)

An approach to practice wherein health professionals use the best available evidence from systematic research, integrating it with clinical expertise to make clinical decisions for service users, who may be individual patients/clients, carers and communities/populations. EBP values, enhances and builds on clinical expertise, knowledge of disease mechanisms, and pathophysiology. It involves complex and conscientious decision-making based not only on the best available evidence but also on patient/client characteristics, situations, and preferences. It recognises that health services are individualised and ever changing and involves uncertainties and probabilities.

References

Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach to Teaching the Practice of Medicine. JAMA 1992:268(17);2420-5 McKibbon KA. Evidence based practice. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1998: 86:3;396-401

Sacket DL, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM and Richardson WS (1996). Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal 1996:312;71-72

Examination

A comprehensive and specific testing process performed by the physical therapist that leads to a diagnostic classification or, as appropriate, to a referral to another practitioner. The examination has three components: the patient/client history, the systems reviews, and tests and measures. These are used to inform the clinical reasoning process.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 81:1;9-744

Exercise

A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective. Physical activity includes exercise as well as other activities which involve bodily movement and are done as part of playing, working, active transportation, house chores and recreational activities.

References

World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

F

Faculty

A department or group of related departments in a college or university and all the educators in a faculty of a college or university.

  1. Associate faculty – the people whose employing faculty is not the physical therapyfaculty and who teach their subject in physical therapy professional programmes. Examples of associate faculty are physicians and nutritionists.
  2. Faculty (members of) – members of staff involved in the delivery of the entry level physical therapy programme.
  3. Clinical education director/coordinator – is a physiotherapist and an academic faculty member, who is responsible for the clinical education component of the physiotherapist professional entry level programme that is normally delivered by physiotherapists in the clinical environment.
  4. Core academic faculty – the people who are employed in the physical therapy faculty to teach physical therapy professional education programmes.
References

World Confederation for Physical TherapyWCPT guideline for the clinical education component of the physical therapist professional entry-level programme. London, UK, WCPT. (Access date 22 September 2011)

Oxford University Press. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2011. (Access date 9 September 2011)

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

FGM, often referred to as “female circumcision”, comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Female genital mutilation, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

First contact practitioner

A physiotherapist who has completed a physical therapy professional entry level programme that equips them to see patients/clients without referral from a third party e.g. medical practitioner.

See also Direct access and Self-referral

Fitness to practice

Fitness to practice or ‘ability to practice’ is the composite of the physiotherapist’s demonstrated possession of: the requisite knowledge and skills earned through an approved physiotherapist professional entry-level educational programme; the capability to communicate at a professional level; and the capability to communicate in the language/s required in order to protect the public. Fitness to practise also necessitates that the physiotherapist be free of: previous convictions and imprisonment for offences that might adversely affect others; professional disciplinary proceedings in the home state, country or other country; any health diseases, disorders or conditions that may adversely affect practice.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physiotherapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 18 December 2019)

G

Global health

An area for study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. Global health emphasises transnational health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and promotes interdisciplinary collaboration; and is a synthesis of population based prevention with individual-level clinical care.

References

JP Koplan, TC Bond, MH Merson, KS Reddy, MH Rodriguez, NK Sewankambo, JN Wasserheit, for the Consortium of Universities for Global Health Executive Board. Towards a common definition of global health. Lancet 2009: 373:1993-1995

Goals (clinical)

The intended impact on functioning (body functions and structures, activities, and participation) as a result of implementing the plan of care. Goals should be measurable, functionally driven, and time limited. If required, the goals may be classified as short-term and long-term.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice 3.0. Alexandria VA, USA: APTA, 2014. (Access date 18 December 2019)

Guidelines

Produced to assist member organisations and others to raise the quality of physical therapy. They may provide guidance on standards, criteria or courses of action in areas relevant to physical therapy education, research, practice or policy. They are not mandatory but designed to assist the implementation of WCPT’s policies. Guidelines are resources to assist with the implementation of policy and do not require a vote to be taken at a WCPT General Meeting.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT's policy structure. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

H

Hazard

A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Physical therapists may encounter the following hazards: Physical (e.g. electricity, noise, temperature, ergonomic); Chemical (e.g. hydrotherapy chemicals); Biological (e.g. infectious diseases); Psychosocial (e.g. work stress, fatigue, remote or isolated work); Organizational (e.g. work scheduling, workplace culture); Environmental (e.g. altitude)

References

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Terminology. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR; 2017. (Access date 16 August 2019)

Health

'Health' is defined in the WHO constitution of 1948 as a state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

See also: Health promotion

References

World Health Organization. Constitution of the World Health Organization. [Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19 June - 22 July 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.]. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1948 updated 2005. (Access date 30 August 2019)

Health condition

An umbrella term for acute or chronic disease, disorder, injury, or trauma. It also may include other circumstances, such as aging, stress, pregnancy, congenital abnormality, or genetic predisposition.

See also: Disease

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice 3.0. Alexandria VA, USA: APTA, 2014. (Access date 18 December 2019)

Health promotion

The combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health. The purpose of health promotion is to enable people to gain greater control over the determinants of their own health.

Health promotion represents a comprehensive social and political process, it not only embraces actions directed at strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals, but also action directed towards changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and individual health. Health promotion, and the associated efforts put into education, community development, policy, legislation and regulation, are equally valid for prevention of communicable diseases, injury and violence, and mental problems, as they are for prevention of non-communicable diseases.

See also: Public health

References

WHO. Health Promotion Glossary (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1998. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Health workforce

Health workers are people whose job it is to protect and improve the health of their communities. Together these health workers, in all their diversity, make up the global health workforce. Health workers are people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health. These workers include those who promote and preserve health as well as those who diagnose and treat disease (e.g. doctors, laboratory technicians, midwives, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists) as well as management and support workers, those who help make the health system function but who do not provide health services directly (e.g. cleaners, cooks, drivers, financial officers and hospital managers).

References

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2006 - working together for health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2006. (Access date 26 September 2019)

I

Impairment

A problem ‘in body function or structure as a significant deviation or loss’; is the manifestation of an underlying pathology; can be temporary or permanent, progressive, regressive or static, intermittent or continuous, slight through to severe.

See also: Disability

References

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Inclusion

Inclusion is about valuing diversity and providing equitable access and opportunity to all by removing discrimination and other barriers to involvement. Inclusive cultures enhance opportunities, access to resources, voice and respect for rights. They make people feel respected, welcomed and valued for who they are as an individual or group.

See also: Diversity

Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases 'are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that can cause disease when transmitted to humans.'

References

World Health Organization. Health topics: Infectious diseases. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Information Communication Technology (ICT)

The phrase used to describe a range of technologies for gathering, storing, retrieving, processing, analysing, and transmitting information electronically.

See also: Digital practice
See also: eHealth

United Nations Statistical Office. International standard classification of activities ISIC Revision 4. New York, USA: United Nations Statistical Office; 2008. (Access date 22 March 2010)

Interdisciplinary professional practice

Two or more professionals working together in an integrated way resulting in new ways of working.

Interdisciplinary professional practice and interprofessional collaborative practice are often used interchangeably.

See also: Interprofessional collaborative practice

See also: Multidisciplinary

Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

People who may have been forced to flee their home for the same reasons as a refugee, but have not crossed an internationally recognised border.

References

United Nations High Commission for Refugees. UNHCR: Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. New York, USA: UNHCR; 2004. (Access date 26 September 2019)

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)

A classification of health and health-related domains; classified from body, individual and societal perspectives by means of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. As functioning and disability occurs in a context, the ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.

References

World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001. (Access date 26 September 2019)

International humanitarian law

A set of rules that seek to limit the effects of armed conflict. It protects people who are not or are no longer participating in hostilities and restricts the means and methods of warfare.

References

International Committee of the Red Cross. What is international humanitarian law? Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC; 2015. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Interprofessional collaborative practice

Interprofessional collaborative practice is the practice of two or more health professionals from different professional education backgrounds to deliver the highest quality of services to patients/clients, families, carers and communicates.

See also: Interprofessional

Interprofessional education (IPE)

Education that occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration.

See also: Interprofessional

References

World Health Organization. Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Interprofessional team

A group of professional practitioners from different backgrounds who meet jointly established goals for patients/clients.

See also: Interprofessional

References

World Health Professions Alliance. WHPA statement on interprofessional collaborative practice. Ferney Voltaire, France; WHPA: 2013 (Access date 26 September 2019)

Interprofessional

Two or more professionals practising together in an integrated way.

  1. Interprofessional collaborative practice (ICP) – is the practice of two or more health professionals from different professional education backgrounds to deliver the highest quality of services to patients/clients, families, carers and communicates.
  2. Interprofessional education (IPE) – is education that occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration.
  3. Interprofessional team – is a group of professional practitioners from different backgrounds who meet jointly established goals for patients/clients that works with clients and families to meet jointly established goals.
References

World Health Organization. Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Health Professions Alliance. WHPA statement on interprofessional collaborative practice. Ferney Voltaire, France; WHPA: 2013 (Access date 26 September 2019)

Intervention

The purposeful interaction of the physiotherapist with the patient/client/group of clients/patients, and, when appropriate, with other individuals involved in patient/client care, using various physiotherapy procedures and techniques (including therapeutic exercise; functional training in self-care and home management; functional training in work, community, and leisure integration or reintegration; manual therapy techniques; prescription, application, and, as appropriate, fabrication of devices and equipment; airway clearance techniques; integumentary repair and protection techniques; electrotherapeutic modalities; physical agents and mechanical modalities) to produce changes in the condition.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 8:1;9-744

L

Law/statute

A Law/statute is:

  • the body or system of rules that are recognised by a community and are enforceable by an established process;
  • an official rule, or order stating what may or may not be done or how something must be done; or
  • an order issued by a government/state department or agency that has the force of law.
References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Lay person

A lay person is an individual, who is neither licensed/registered nor qualified to be licensed/registered as a physiotherapist.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Learning

  1. Formal learning – learning that is typically provided by education or training institutions, with structured learning objectives, learning time and learning support. It is intentional on the part of the learner and leads to certification.
  2. Informal learning – Forms of learning that are intentional or deliberate but are not institutionalised. It is consequently less organized and structured than either formal or non-formal education. Informal learning may include learning activities that occur in the family, workplace, local community and daily life, on a self-directed, family-directed or socially-directed basis.
  3. Lifelong learning (LLL) – the process of continuous learning and personal and professional development in which all individuals need to engage in a time of rapid change. LLL incorporates continuing professional development.
  4. Non-formal learninglearning that is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. However, it is intentional on the part of the learner and has structured objectives, times and support.
  5. Self-directed learning – independent learning that is initiated by the student.
References

European Commission Education & Training. Validation of non-formal and informal learning. 2010. (Access date 26 September 2019)

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Learning outcomes

The totality of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies or behaviours an individual is expected to master upon successful completion of an education programme.

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Legislature/regulatory board/authority

The body appointed by national or state law to be responsible for the licensure/registration and oversight of physiotherapist practitioners.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy.WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

License/registration

An official authorisation issued by an authority on an annual or otherwise specified time frame to practise the profession of physical therapy and is based on the declaration by the physical therapist that he/she will continue to meet competencies required to be licensed/registered.

  1. Re-license/re-registration – the meeting of requirements for maintenance on a register that may include the examination of evidence of continuing professional development, which meets the standards set by the (national) competent authority for maintenance of registration or may only require payment of a fee.
  2. License/registration/regulation list – is the directory of physical therapists in a country/state maintained by the licensing/regulatory authority.

See also: Regulation

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

M

Management autonomy

Used to describe the responsibility of the professional to manage his/her practice independently.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Manual handling

The transporting or supporting of a load, which includes lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving, and refers to both inanimate and animate objects or people.

References

Health & Safety Executive. Manual handling. Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (as amended). Guidance on Regulations L23. 3rd ed. London, UK: HSE Books; 2004.

Master's degree

An academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. Within the area studied, graduates possess advanced knowledge of a specialised body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation and/or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently. Programmes at this level may have a substantial research component but do not yet lead to the award of a doctoral qualification. Typically, programmes at this level are theoretically-based but may include practical components and are informed by state of the art research and/or best professional practice. They are traditionally offered by universities and other tertiary educational institutions.

References

Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) Advisory Board. AQF Qualifications. 2013. (Access date 26 September 2019)

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Multidisciplinary

One or more disciplines working collaboratively. It includes several professions in the team where the various interventions are provided in isolation and the professions co-exist. This approach recognises the importance of different disciplines and involves professionals operating within the boundaries of their profession towards discipline-specific goals while recognising the important contribution from other disciplines.

See also: Interdisciplinary professional practice
See also: Interprofessional collaborative practice

References

European Region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. European Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

N

Noncommunicable disease (NCD)

The four main types of noncommunicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes with the highest incidence of morbidity and mortality and these share four main modifiable risk factors: unhealthy diet, tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and physical inactivity. There are other important NCDs, such as renal, endocrin, neurological (e.g. epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), haematological (e.g. haemoglobinopathies such as thalessemia and sickle cell anaemia), hepatic, gastroenterological, musculoskeletal, skin and oral diseases, and genetic disorders which may affect individuals either alone or as comorbidities. Consideration also needs to be given to mental health disorders, visual and hearing impairments, and long term consequences of communicable diseases, violence and other injuries.

References

World Health Organization. Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013-2020 (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland; 2013. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases. Fact sheet. Updated January 2015. Geneva, Switzerland; 2015. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Non-discriminatory practice

Professional practice within which individuals, teams, and organisations actively seek to ensure that no-one (including patients/clients, carers, colleagues, or students) is either directly or indirectly treated less favourably than others are, or would be, treated in the same or similar circumstances, on the grounds of age, colour, creed, criminal convictions, culture, disability, ethnic or national origin, gender, marital status, medical condition, mental health, nationality, physical appearance, political beliefs, race, religion, responsibility for dependants, sexual identity, sexual orientation, or social class.

References

European Region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy.European Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)

An organised entity that is functionally independent of, and does not represent, a government or state. This term is normally applied to organisations devoted to humanitarian and human rights causes.

References

UN High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms, June 2006, Rev.1. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations; 2006. (Access date 26 September 2019)

P

Patient

An individual who is the recipient of physical therapy and direct interventions. A person for whom a health service accepts responsibility for treatment and/or care. Individuals who are recipients of physical therapy may also be referred to as clients or service users.

See also: Client

See also: Service User

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Metadata Online Registry (METeOR) (Access date 25 September 2019)

Physical activity

Defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.

References

Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christensen GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 1985, 100:126–131

Physical therapist

A professional who has successfully completed a professional entry level programme that enables them to identify and maximise quality of life and functional movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, maintenance, intervention/treatment and rehabilitation. This encompasses physical, psychological, emotional and social wellbeing. Physical therapist practice involves the interaction between the physical therapist, patients or clients, families, care givers, other health care providers and communities, in a process of assessing movement potential and in establishing agreed upon goals and objectives using knowledge and skills unique to physical therapists. The first professional qualification, obtained in any country, represents the completion of a curriculum that qualifies the physical therapist to use the professional title and to practise as an independent professional.

The professional title and term used to describe the profession's practice varies and depends largely on the historical roots of the profession in each country. The most generally used titles and terms are 'physical therapy’, ‘physiotherapy' and ‘physical therapist’, ‘physiotherapist’.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for physical therapist professional entry level education. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT policy statement: Description of physical therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Protection of title. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Physical therapy

Services for individuals and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. Physical therapy is described more comprehensively in WCPT’s ‘Description of Physical Therapy'.

The professional title and term used to describe the profession's practice varies and depends largely on the historical roots of the profession in each country. The most generally used titles and terms are 'physical therapy’, ‘physiotherapy' and ‘physical therapist’, ‘physiotherapist’.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Description of physical therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Protection of title. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Physical therapy record

A document (in any media) which includes all aspects of patient/client care/management including the results of the initial examination/assessment and evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, plan of care/intervention/treatment, interventions/treatment, response to interventions/treatment, changes in patient/client status relative to the interventions/treatment, re-examination, and discharge/discontinuation of intervention and other patient/client management activities. The physical therapy record may be part of a comprehensive record.

See also: Clinical record

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for records management: record keeping, storage, retrieval and disposal. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Physical therapy speciality

A defined area of physical therapy practice formally recognised by a Member Organisation within which it is possible for a physical therapist to develop and demonstrate higher levels of knowledge and skills.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Physical therapist practice specialisation. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Plan of care

Statements that specify the goals, predicted level of optimal improvement, specific interventions to be used, and proposed duration and frequency of the interventions that are required to reach the goals and outcomes.

References

Guide to Physical Therapist Practice 3.0. Alexandria, VA: American Physical Therapy Association; 2014. Available at: (Access date 18 December 2019).

Policy statements

Record the Confederation's agreed opinion on issues affecting the practice of physical therapy internationally. They are designed to be used by the Confederation, its member organisations and those wishing to further the development of physical therapy and improve health. Member organisations are expected to promote and use them, when appropriate, with other bodies, including national governments, to support national policy development. They have a simple majority vote at a General Meeting of WCPT and are available to member organisations to adopt, fully or in part.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT's policy structure. 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Positive practice environments

Cost-effective health care settings that support excellence and decent work, have the power to attract and retain staff and to improve patient satisfaction, safety and outcomes. Characteristically such settings:

  1. ensure the , safety and well-being of staff;
  2. support quality patient care;
  3. improve the motivation, productivity and performance of individuals and organisations.
References

ICN, FIP, IHF, WCPT, FDI, WMA. Positive Practice Environments (PPE) Campaign. Campaign overview. Geneva, Switzerland: 2011. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Global Health Workforce Alliance. Positive Practice Environments (PPE) Campaign. Geneva, Switzerland; 2011.  (Access date 26 September 2019)

Practice management

The coordination, promotion, and resource (financial and human) management of practice that follows regulatory and legal guidelines.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Practice settings

The environment in which physiotherapists are practising. This includes, but is not limited to: hospitals; nursing homes; occupational health centres; out-patient clinics; physiotherapist private offices, practices, clinics; community based rehabilitation programmes; community settings including primary health care centres, individual homes, and field settings; education and research centres; fitness clubs, health clubs, gymnasia and spas; hospices; prisons; public settings (e.g. shopping malls) for health promotion; rehabilitation centres and residential homes; schools, including pre-schools and special schools; senior citizen centres; sports centres/sports clubs; workplace/companies.

Prescribe

'Prescribe' has several meanings in the context of physical therapy:

  1. Prescribe (practice) – the setting out of a programme of exercises or other activities, such as postures, work accommodations, assistive device use to be undertaken by the patient/client and/or their carers.
  2. Prescribe (regulation) – the setting out of specific parts of legislation.
  3. Prescribe (medicines) – to request in writing, in the appropriate manner, the supply and administration of a prescription only medicine for use by a named patient. Only appropriate practitioners may prescribe. Independent and/or supplementary prescribing for physiotherapists is subject to an annotation on the register.
References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Medicines, prescribing and physiotherapy (4th edition). London, UK: CSP; 2016. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Prevention

Activities that are directed toward achieving and restoring optimal functioning, minimising impairments, limitations, and participation restrictions, maintaining health (thereby preventing further deterioration or future illness), creating appropriate environmental adaptations to enhance independent function.

  1. Primary preventionactions to avoid or remove the cause of a health problem in an individual or a population before it arises.
  2. Secondary preventionactions to detect a health problem at an early stage in an individual or a population, facilitating cure, or reducing or preventing spread, or reducing or preventing its long-term effects.
  3. Tertiary prevention – actions to reduce the impact of an already established disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications.
References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 81:1;9-744

World Health Organization, World Bank. World report on disability. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. (Access date 29 August 2019)

Primary health care

The first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with a nation’s health system bringing health services as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health service process. It is an essential health service based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community.

References

World Health Organization. Declaration of Alma-Ata (PDF). International Conference on Primary Health Care. Alma-Ata, USSR: WHO; 1978. (Access date 22 March 2010)

World Health Organization. From Alma-Ata towards universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (PDF). Astana, Kazakhstan: WHO; 2018 (Access date 27 September 2019)

Private practice

The independent practice of physiotherapy; generally in settings that are not funded by governments. However private practitioners may be contracted by governments to provide services in publicly funded facilities.

See also: Private practitioner

Private practitioner

Those providing a professional physical therapy service to patients/clients outside that established by governments/states.

See also: Autonomy
See also: Private practice

Pro bono (publico)

The provision of services free of charge for the public good (Latin).

Professional autonomy

Usually stated in the law, regulation, directives or rules. It means the responsibility of the professional to make decisions regarding the management of a patient/client based on one’s own professional knowledge and expertise to manage his/her practice independently and to act according to the rules of ethics and the code of professional conduct within the framework of health legislation.

See also: Autonomy

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education. Washington DC, USA: APTA; 2004. (Access date 27 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Autonomy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019 (Access date 27 September 2019)

Professional conduct committee

The committee established by the authority to hear complaints about physiotherapists and make recommendations to the authority.

Professional ethics

A collection of criteria, rules and moral values that are formulated and assumed by people undertaking professional activity. To practise the profession of physiotherapy, World Physiotherapy has established eight ethical principles that are expected to be observed by the physiotherapist.

See also: Research ethics

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 27th September 2019)

Prognosis

The determination by the physiotherapist of the predicted optimal level of improvement in function and the amount of time needed to reach that level.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 8:1;9-744

Protection of title

A legal system whereby title/titles may only be used by those holding a recognised qualification or who are registered with a competent authority.

References

European Region World Confederation for Physical Therapy. European Region World Confederation for Physical Therapy Glossary of Terms. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2010.

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Protection of title. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Public health

Defined as “the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts of society” (Acheson, 1988; WHO). Activities to strengthen public health capacities and service aim to provide conditions under which people can maintain to be healthy, improve their health and wellbeing, or prevent the deterioration of their health. Public health focuses on the entire spectrum of health and wellbeing, not only the eradication of particular diseases. Many activities are targeted at populations such as health campaigns.

See also: Health promotion

References

World Health Organization. Public health services. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Q

Qualification

A formal outcome of an assessment and validation process which is obtained when a competent body determines that an individual has achieved learning outcomes to given standards. The certification is issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs.

See also: Credential

References

Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) Advisory Board. AQF Qualifications. 2013. (Access date 26 September 2019)

Quality assurance

A system of recognised procedures for establishing standards and includes procedures for reaching standards.

See also: Quality enhancement

References

European Region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. European Physiotherapy Benchmark Statement. Brussels, Belgium: ER-WCPT; 2003.

Quality enhancement

Taking deliberate steps to bring about continual improvement. This term may be applied to physiotherapist educational programmes and practice.

See also: Quality assurance

R

Reasonable accommodation

The necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

References

United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. New York: United Nations. 2006. (Access date 16 August 2019)

Reciprocity

Means that one country recognises the physical therapy credentials/qualifications of another. Although this type of recognition facilitates professional mobility, it can only exist when two or more registering authorities agree that their qualifications are substantially equivalent.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Reciprocity – mutual recognition. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Recognition

Formal acceptance of a student’s knowledge, skills, or former academic studies and the granting of advanced standing or credit. The term may also apply to formal acceptance of an educational institution by another institution or public authority. Recognition relates more to acceptance and equivalency, i.e. determining a relationship of parity between one system, jurisdiction, or institution and another with respect to the value and significance of courses, diplomas, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees.

References

Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. Guide to terminology usage (PDF). Toronto, Canada: CICIC; 2003. (Access date 27 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Guideline for the development of a system of legislation/regulation/recognition of physical therapists. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Record

An account that contains information (in any media) intended to document actions, events or facts. The International Organization for Standardisation defines records as information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organisation or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business.

See also: Clinical record

References

International Standards Organization. ISO 15489-1: Information and Documentation – Records Management – Part 1: General. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO; 2001.

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Record keeping guidance. PD061 version 3. London, UK: CSP; 2016. (Access date 25 September 2019)

Referral procedures

The process by which patients/clients are referred between physiotherapists and other professionals/persons/agencies involved with the patient/client. These may differ from country to country and are determined by national legislation, national authorities and the professional organisation.

See also: Access to physical therapy

Reflective Practice

Widely accepted as an effective way of using learning to create change. It is described by Schon as ‘the capacity to reflect on action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning’ and it is how experiences and learning are converted into actions which change the way an individual thinks or does things.

References

Schon, D., The Reflective Practitioner. 1983, San Francisco, USA: Jossey Bass.

Refugee

Someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries.

References

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Refugee facts: What is a refugee? New York, USA: UNHCR, 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Regulated profession

A profession that may only be practised by individuals who have been certified by the relevant regulatory authority as meeting the standards or requirements for the practice of that profession.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Regulation of the physical therapy profession. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Regulation of the profession

Designed to protect the public interest by ensuring that physiotherapists meet (and continue to meet) the standards or requirements for practice. The approach to regulation and the specific regulatory mechanisms vary by jurisdiction and are often provided by laws, regulations, directives or rules set by the regulatory authority. Professional regulation may also be overseen by the profession itself, this is referred to as ’self-regulation’.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy, Policy Statement: Regulation of the physical therapy profession. 2019, WCPT: London, UK. (Access date 19 November 2019)

Regulation authority

The organisation that ensures individuals who practise regulated professions meet (and continue to meet) the standards or requirements for practice. The regulatory authority maintains a register of the individuals who are certified to practice the profession and often issues certification in the form of a licence or registration certificate to those individuals.

References

World Confederation for Physical TherapyPolicy statement: Regulation of the physical therapy profession. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Rehabilitation

A set of measures that assist individuals who experience, or are likely to experience, disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with their environments. A distinction is sometimes made between habilitation, which aims to help those who acquire disabilities congenitally or early in life to develop maximal functioning; and rehabilitation, where those who have experienced a loss in function are assisted to regain maximal functioning.

In WCPT documents the term ‘rehabilitation’ covers both types of intervention.

References

World Health Organization. World Report on Disability. Geneva: WHO; 2011. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Research ethics

Involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation, animal experimentation, various aspects of academic scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism), whistle blowing; regulation of research, etc. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in health sciences research. The key agreements in relation to human research are the Declaration of Helsinki 1964 and updated most recently in 2008 and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects.

See also: Professional ethics

References

Council of International Organizations of Medical Science. Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. London, UK: CIOMS; 2002. (Access date 26 September 2019)

World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki. 2013. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Health Research Authority. Defining research (PDF). London, UK: HRA, 2013 (Access date 27 September 2019)

Returnees

Refugees who have voluntarily returned to their own countries.

References

United Nations High Commission for Refugees. The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees Article 1. London, UK: UNHCR; 1951. (Access date 27 September 2019)

S

Scope of practice

The full spectrum of roles, functions, responsibilities, activities and decision-making capacity that individuals within the profession are educated, competent and authorised to perform. World Physiotherapy describes the parameters of a physiotherapist’s scope of practice in its description of physiotherapy.

See also: Advanced practice

References

Australian Physiotherapy Association. APA Position Statement Scope of practice (PDF). Hawthorn, Australia: APA; 2016. (Access date 2 July 2018)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Description of physical therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Screening

The activity of determining the need for further examination or consultation by a physiotherapist or for referral to another health professional.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Second Edition. Physical Therapy 2001: 81:1;9-744

Self-directed learning

In its broadest meaning, 'self-directed learning’ describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with or without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.

Self-directed learning behaviour regarding a learning task is characterised by:

  • responsibility for and critical awareness of the individual learning process and outcome;
  • a high level of self-direction in performing learning activities and solving problems;
  • active input to decision-making; and
  • the use of the educator as a resource person.

See also: Learning

References

Knowles, M. Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers, New York, USA: Cambridge Books; 1975 (page 18).

Higgs J. Planning learning experiences to promote autonomous learning. In Boud D (Editor) Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. Second Edition. London, UK: Kogan; 1988 (pages 40-58).

Self-referral

Patients/clients are able to consult a physiotherapist without having to see anyone else first. This relates to telephone, online or face-to-face services.

See also: Access to physical therapy
See also: Direct access

References

Department of Health. Self-referral pilots to musculoskeletal physiotherapy and the implications for improving access to other AHP services (PDF). London, UK: Department of Health; 2008. (Access date 27 September 2019)

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Direct access and patient/client self-referral to physical therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019 (Access date 27 September 2019)

Service standards

'Service standards' describe aspects of the physiotherapy service for which the organisation is responsible in order to maintain the safety and quality of services for staff and patients.

References

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Quality Assurance Standards for physiotherapy service delivery. London, UK., CSP; 2013. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Service user

Includes an actual or potential recipient of physical therapy services. This encompasses individuals or groups who may be seeking health promotion and preventative advice.

See also: Patient
See also: Client

Specialisation

Physiotherapist specialisation is the result of in-depth knowledge, skills and competence attained by a physical therapist qualified in a specific area, within the scope of practice recognised as physical therapy. This usually results from defined training and educational pathways, associated with a formal process for testing and recognising the higher level acquired, but it may also be demonstrated as a result of informal learning and experience.

See also: Advanced practice

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Specialisation. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Specialist physical therapist

A physical therapist who has formally demonstrated in-depth clinical competence in a defined specialty area within the scope of practice recognised as physical therapy. A specialist physical therapist would be expected to practice and/or teach in the specialty area of clinical practice and also to be involved in evaluation and practice/service development and to contribute to the body of knowledge relevant to their practice setting.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Specialisation. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Standards of practice

A collection of documents describing the professional consensus on the practise of physiotherapists in any occupational setting. Standards reflect the collective judgement of the profession at a given point in time.

References

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Quality Assurance Standards for physiotherapy service delivery. London, UK., CSP; 2013. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand. Physiotherapy Standards Framework (PDF). Wellington, New Zealand; 2018. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Statute

A law established by a legislative/regulatory body (e.g. an assembly, a senate, a Parliament).

Statutory requirements

Notes explaining a professional’s duty to comply with legal requirements and other legislation.

See also: Regulation

Support personnel

A generic term to encompass a range of employment classifications such as:

  • physical therapist assistant
  • physical therapist aide
  • physical therapist technician
  • physical therapist helper

Support personnel function only in a properly conducted physical therapy service under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist when implementing direct intervention/treatment programmes.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Policy statement: Support personnel for physical therapy practice. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

T

Tertiary education

Builds on secondary education, providing learning activities in specialised fields of education. It aims at learning at a high level of complexity and specialisation. Tertiary education includes what is commonly understood as academic education but also includes advanced vocational or professional education.

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

Tests and measures

The means of gathering reliable and valid cellular- to person-level information, including the individual's environmental factors, and addressing their capacity for, and performance during, movement-related functioning.

References

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice 3.0. Alexandria VA, USA: APTA, 2014. (Access date 18 December 2019)

U

Upper secondary level education

Typically designed to complete secondary education in preparation for tertiary education or provide skills relevant to employment, or both. Programmes at this level offer students more varied, specialised and in-depth instruction than programmes at lower secondary education. They are more differentiated, with an increased range of options and streams available.

References

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization. International Standard Classification of Education (PDF). ISCED 2011. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO; 2011. (Access date 15 October 2019)

W

WCPT accreditation standard

A description of the level of achievement that a physical therapist professional entry level education programme has to reach to gain WCPT accreditation. It should be at a level consistent with the WCPT guideline for physical therapist professional entry level education and across all programmes granted accreditation by WCPT.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT guideline for standard evaluation process for accreditation/recognition of physical therapist professional entry level education programmes. London, UK: WCPT; 2011. (Access date 19 September 2019)

WCPT member organisation (MO)

A national physiotherapy association that needs to fulfil the following criteria to be admitted:

  • the organisation must be a national professional membership organisation for physical therapists;
  • the majority of members of the organisation must be qualified physical therapists;
  • the majority of the individuals holding positions on the governing body of the organisation must be qualified physical therapists;
  • membership of the organisation must be open to all people who are eligible to practise physical therapy in the Country where the organisation is based;
  • the organisation must require its members to comply with a code of ethics, or equivalent document, that is consistent with the WCPT Ethical Principles;
  • the organisation must agree to be bound by this Constitution; and
  • the organisation must demonstrate it has capacity and commitment to comply with all the duties of Member Organisations.

Membership of WCPT is limited to one national professional membership organisation for physical therapists per country.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Constitution of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

WCPT policy statements

These record the Confederation's agreed opinion on issues affecting the practice of physical therapy internationally. They are designed to be used by the Confederation, its member organisations and those wishing to further the development of physical therapy and improve health. Member organisations are expected to promote and use them, when appropriate, with other bodies, including national governments, to support national policy development. They have a simple majority vote at a General Meeting of WCPT and are available to member organisations to adopt, fully or in part.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT Policy statements. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

WCPT regions

The Board may establish up to six Regions within the WCPT based on:

  • the needs of the WCPT and its Member Organisations;
  • the geographic location of Member Organisations; or
  • any other criteria determined by the Board.

Currently, the following WCPT Regions exist:

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Constitution of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. London, UK: WCPT; 2019. (Access date 27 September 2019)

WCPT subgroup

International physical therapy organisation which has a specific area of interest and which meets WCPT criteria for recognition as a WCPT subgroup. They require wide geographic representation in the specialty area of interest.

References

World Confederation for Physical Therapy. WCPT Subgroups. London, UK: WCPT; 2016. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Wellbeing

A positive physical, social and mental state; it is not just the absence of pain, discomfort and incapacity. It requires that basic needs are met, that individuals have a sense of purpose, that they feel able to achieve important personal goals and participate in society. It is enhanced by conditions that include supportive personal relationships, strong and inclusive communities, good health, financial and personal security, rewarding employment, and a healthy and attractive environment.

References

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Measuring Progress: Sustainable Development Indicators 2010. London, UK: DEFRA; 2010. (Access date 10th March 2019)

United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals. New York, USA: UN; 2018. (Access date 27 September 2019)

Wellness

An active process of becoming aware of and making choices toward a more successful existence.

References

National Wellness Organization. A definition of wellness. Stevens Point, WI, USA: National Wellness Institute, Inc; 2003.